I have been
kicked out of better places than this is the slightly pathetic thing to
say as you leave. If it happens once it happens. Twice might be bad
luck. Thrice starts to sound like a habit. When it gets to dozens there
have to be reasons, good reasons. The Bible Believers give us
109 Locations whence Jews have been Expelled since AD 250 Most of them
are confirmed by Internet sources. In searching there are extras to be found. Records are out there in the
history books and on line. It is just out of fashion to notice these things. If you do
take notice you are liable to get abused for your pains. From some
people it is a compliment. Here are two sources on the reasons:
Context of Jewish Problems. Another
view is put by the
Metapedia at Jewish
PS The same ground is covered at Why Do Goyim Always Pick On Yehudim?
415 CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA
Expelled the Jews in 415 AD. He also expelled the Novations and robbed them to boot. Tolerance was not in fashion at the time. It still is not.
The Library of Alexandria was destroyed about this time. In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire, pagan rituals forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the bishop of Alexandria. See also Hypatia which mentions it en passant.
554 AD Diocese of Clement [ France ] expelled the Jews. Unconfirmed.
561 AD Diocese of Uzzes [ sic ] expelled the Jews. Unconfirmed.
QUOTE ex The Catholic Encyclopaedia
The first Bishop of Uzès historically known is Constantius, present at the Council of Vaison in 442. Other bishops were St. Firminus (541-53) and St. Ferreol (553-81).....
About 570, Sigebert, King of Austrasia, created a see at Arisitum (Alais) taking fifteen parishes from the Diocese of Nîmes. In the eighth century, when Septimania was annexed to the Frankish Empire, the Diocese of Alais was suppressed and its territory returned to the Diocese of Nîmes. At the request of Louis XIV, a see was again created at Alais by Innocent XII, in 1694. The future Cardinal de Bausset, Bossuet's biographer was Bishop of Alais from 1784 to 1790.
612 AD Visigoth expelled the Jews. King Sesbut [ 610 - 620 ] did it. See Jewishhistory.org.il
642 Visigoth Empire
They got aggravation about this time. Expulsion is not mentioned.
The Visigoths scorned to interfere among Catholics but were interested in decorum and public order. The Arian Visigoths were also tolerant of Jews. Visigothic persecution of Jews had to wait for the conversion to Catholicism of the Visigothic king Reccared, and the same synod of Catholic bishops in 633 that usurped the Visigothic nobles' right to confirm the election of a king declared that all Jews must be baptized.
In January 587 AD Reccared renounced Arianism for Catholicism, the single great event of his reign and the turning-point for Visigothic Spain.
The Council of Toledo, organized by Leander but convened in the king's name in May 589 set the tone for the new Catholic kingdom. Leander and the Catholic bishops immediately instituted the program of forced conversion of Jews. Catholic history traditionally imputes these persecutions to the Visigothic kings.
He turned down a bribe from the Jews.
18 February 654 AD TOLEDO (Spain)
Receswinth, King of the Visigoths, forced Judaizing Christians (converted Jews who still kept Jewish traditions) to swear loyalty to the Church or die. They were forced to spend Jewish and Christian holy days with the clergy, but could not be forced to eat pork. See Jewishhistory.org.il
855 AD Italy See the Catholic Encyclopaedia
In Italy, as early as 855, Louis II ordered the banishment of all Italian Jews, and his order failed to have the intended effect only because of the distracted condition of the realm at the time. In Germany, where "Jew" was synonymous with "merchant", the emperors were long satisfied with exacting a special tax from their Jewish subjects; but finally Henry II (1002-1024) expelled from Mainz the Jews who refused to be baptized, and it is probable that his decree was applied to other communities.
876 AD Sens, France. See Persecution of the Jews in Europe
1012 AD MAYENCE [ aka Mainz, Germany ]
Emperor Henry II expelled the Jews, probably in reaction to an anti-Christian pamphlet which was produced by a new convert to Judaism, Wecelin (a former Cleric and Deacon). The Jews were allowed to return the following year. See Jewishhistory.org.il
1066 AD THE NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND. THE FIRST JEWS ARRIVE IN ENGLAND.
There seem to have been no Jews in England until the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. He brought with him a handful of Jewish financiers from France. In the next generation, the communities grew much stronger and we find proper communities in several English towns. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education.
1180 January 9, PHILIP AUGUSTUS (France)
(The new king of France) arrested large numbers of Jews while his father, Louis VII, who tried to protect the Jews (though not always successfully) was still alive. All the Jews found in synagogues on the Sabbath were arrested. Philip agreed to free them for 15,000 silver marks. See Jewishhistory.org.il
1181 AD France EXPULSION OF JEWS
From "France", after which Philip confiscated their land and cancelled the debts owed them. Since Philip did not control the whole of France, many Jews moved to other areas. In 1192, after expanding his kingdom to areas which still had Jews, he decided to allow them to return to his whole kingdom - for a fee and under strict conditions. See Jewishhistory.org.il
1181 AD ABBEY OF ST. EDMUNDS (England)
A dispute broke out between William the Sacristan (Sexton) of the Abbey and his associate Samson. The Jews and the local townspeople sided with William. Unfortunately, it was Samson who came to power the next year as Abbot. In 1190, after the Coronation riots, Samson demanded that the Jews should be placed under his authority rather than the Kings. When they refused, they were expelled under guard. See Jewishhistory.org.il
King Henry II enacted the "Assize of Arms", ordering that all weapons in possession of Jews be confiscated on the grounds that Jews, who were supposedly protected by the King, would not have any reason for owning arms. The weapons were turned over to the King's forces. A direct result of this was that there was little they could do to protect themselves when riots broke out less then ten years later. See Jewishhistory.org.il
1255 AD Hugh of Lincoln drowned in a Jewish cess pool. A hundred Jews were hanged for their pains. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1275 AD Edward passed the Statute of the Jewry
Forbidding usury by Jews. He kicked them out in 1290 because they cheated; they were [ and are ] incorrigible.
1278 AD England 269 Jews are hanged. 680 were nicked for thieving so most of them got away with it. King Edward came in for 16,500 pounds from fines and confiscations which was seriously useful money. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1288 AD Naples orders the first expulsion of Jews in Southern Italy. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1290 AD Edward I of England expelled the Jews because he was vicious or vice versa. The Wikipedia blames Edward. See also 16,000 Jews are expelled or Expulsion of Jews in 1290 AD
1293 AD Destruction of most Jewish communities in the Kingdom of Naples, cradle of Ashkenazi culture in Southern Italy, accompanied by conversions of Jews. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1305 AD Pope Clement V is first pope to threaten Jews with an economic boycott in an attempt to force them to stop charging Christians interest on loans. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline Here we get a reason for their unpopularity.
1306 AD France expelled the Jews. Philip IV of France confiscated all of their property. A year later he got a grip of the Knights Templar in France and robbed them too. See also Jewishhistory.org.il
1306 January 21, FRANCE
Phillip the Fair, needing funds after his war with the Flemish, issued secret orders to ready for the expulsion of the Jews and the confiscation of their property. Any Jews found after a given date were to be executed. See Jewishhistory.org.il
1306 July 22, PHILIP THE FAIR (France)
Expelled the Jews from his lands after arresting all of them (on the day after the 9th of Av) and confiscating their property. Most Jews went to the next Duchy. Gradually, they were allowed to drift back.
UNQUOTE See Jewishhistory.org.il
1321 August 21, FRANCE
Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells. This directly led to wide-spread and similar accusations during the Black Plague. This time, five thousand Jews were killed. At Chinon, 160 Jews were burned in a pit on an island outside of town. Eventually the King, Philip the Tall, admitted that the Jews were innocent. The island is still known as Ile de Juifs. See Jewishhistory.org.il
1322 June 24, CHARLES IV OF FRANCE
Expelled all the Jews from France without the promised one year's warning. See Jewishhistory.org.il
1328 March 5, NAVARRE (France)
After the death of Charles the Fair, Philip's brother and successor, Pedro Olligoyen, a Franciscan friar, used the Jews as a scapegoat against French rule. All Jewish houses were pillaged then destroyed. Approximately 6000 Jews were murdered. There were 20 survivors. See Jewishhistory.org.il
A street with the name of Via Scannaguidei (Kill the Jews Street) was noted and is still in existence today. See Jewish History On Via Scannaguidei - he does not say where.
1348 January 9, BLACK PLAGUE (Basel, Switzerland)
In reaction to the Black Plague, six hundred Jews and the town Rabbis were burned at the stake. 140 children were forcibly baptized. The victims were left unburied, the cemetery destroyed and the synagogue turned into a church. The remaining Jews were expelled and not readmitted until 1869. http://jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1340&endyear=1349
1348 June, NORTHERN SPAIN
Black Plague massacres began in Barcelona and Cervera. Jewishhistory.org.il
1348 September 21, PLAGUE RIOTS SPREAD TO SWITZERLAND
Bern, Chillon, Zurich. In the Castle of Chillon on Lake Geneva, Jews under torture admitted to being given poison to place in wells around Venice. Jewishhistory.org.il
1348 AD September 26, POPE CLEMENT VI
Issued a Bull contradicting the libel against the Jews. In it he stated that the Jews were suffering just like the rest of Europe. Other rulers issued similar denunciations, but to little effect. Jewishhistory.org.il
1348 AD The Black Plague–Jews are accused of poisoning the wells. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline You cannot say that they were beloved of their hosts.
1348 November 22, RIOTS REACHED BAVARIA AND SWABIA (Germany)
Jews in eighty towns including Augsburg, Munich and Würzburg were attacked. Jewishhistory.org.il
1348-49 AD THE BLACK PLAGUE (Europe)
One third of Europe's population died from the Black Death (Bubonic plague). Though many Jews were among the dead, they were accused by local church leaders and tortured to confess that they had poisoned the wells (Chillon) in order to kill Christians. During the next few years - despite the protests of Pope Clement VI - over 60 large and 150 small Jewish communities were destroyed as a direct result of these accusations. These included untold atrocities in cities such as Basel, Cologne, Strasbourg, Worms, Zurich and others. The plague, which originated in China, was spread for the most part by rats which came aboard ships from Asia to European ports. It is estimated that 25 million people perished within three years. Jewishhistory.org.il
1349 January 16, BASEL
The Guilds brought up charges against the Jews accusing them of poisoning the wells. Despite an attempted defence by the town council, 600 Jews together with the Rabbi were burned to death. One hundred and forty children were taken from their parents and forcible baptized ending a Jewish presence in the town. Jewishhistory.org.il
1349 January 22, SPEYER (Germany)
The Jewish community was destroyed. The Jewish inhabitants were either killed, converted or fled to Heidelberg. All their property - including the Jewish cemetery - was confiscated. http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/1340.htm
1349 January-August, ATROCITIES (Germany)
Spread from city to city up the Rhine; cities included Strasbourg, Worms and Cologne. Jewishhistory.org.il
1349 Heilbronn (Germany) unconfirmed but not improbable.
1349 February 22, ZURICH (Switzerland)
Although the town council initially tried to protect the Jews of the town, they were forced to give in to the mob, resulting in the murder of many of the Jewish inhabitants. Jewishhistory.org.il
1349 March 21, ERFURT (Germany)
After a mob marched into the Jewish quarter carrying a flag with a cross, the Jews tried to defend themselves. Over a hundred Jews were killed and much of the ghetto burned. http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/1340.htm
1349 August 23, COLOGNE (Germany)
As the riots began, many of the residents took shelter in the synagogue. When it was attacked as well, the Jews inside set fire to it rather then be taken by the mob outside. Most of those who had not taken refuge in the synagogue were also murdered. Their property was confiscated by the church, with the municipality and the Count of Juelich each fighting over their share. Jewishhistory.org.il
1349 August 24, MAYENCE [ Mainz ] AND BRESLAU (Germany)
Some ten thousand Jews were massacred during the riots in two of the largest communities of Germany. Jewishhistory.org.il
1349 September 29, ALBERT II (Austria)
After an attack on the Jews at Krems, he forcibly ended the riots. Austria was thus one of the few places of relative security in Europe. Jewishhistory.org.il
1349 Hungary. See Hungary 1349
1356 GOLDEN BULL OF CHARLES IV (Germany)
Alienated all rights of Jews. This led to the common practice of expelling the Jews from one district and, due to financial considerations, accepting them in another. Jewishhistory.org.il
A defeat by the English at Poitiers led to a financial crisis that prompted re-admittance of Jewish financiers and Jews to France, this time for 70 years. Jewishhistory.org.il
1388 Strasbourg See Strasbourg 1388 This allegedly authoritative source surveys in detail the history and forms of anti-Semitism over the past 2,000 years. It uses a list of events which has been lifted from a Christian source complete with spelling mistakes.
1389 Czechoslovakia 3000 Jews are murdered in Prague Jewish boys annoyed a priest which caused major retaliation. The trigger was trivial. The resentment was major.
1394 Germany unconfirmed
1394 France and French Domains, by King Charles VI of France. He was a lunatic.
1397 Jewish moneylenders are encouraged to settle in Florence. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1399 Anti-Jewish measures in Italy lead to establishment of Italian Jewish synods to ensure centralized leadership of community; synods are convened throughout 15th and 16th centuries to solve special problems See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1416 — Anti-Jewish preaching of Franciscans prompts delegates from Jewish communities to meet in Bologna and Forli to respond. Meeting result in pro-Jewish bulls by Pope Martin (1417-1431 —), who tries to control the Franciscans’ preaching. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1422 Austria unconfirmed but Vienna and Linz are for 1421. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education
1424 Freibourg unconfirmed but 1428 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education
1424 Zurich unconfirmed but 1436 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education
1424 UTRECHT Jews were banished. They got back in because they were banned again in 1444.
1426 Cologne unconfirmed but 1424 is. See Department for Jewish Zionist Education
1429 Pope Martin enacts bull providing a sweeping measure of protection of the Jews, which remains largely unenforced. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1432 Savory unconfirmed.
1437 Cosimo de Medici, the Elder, grants the first formal charter to the Jews of Florence for money lending See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1438 Mainz unconfirmed
1439 Augsburg see The Department for Jewish Zionist Education
1442 Pope Eugenius IV issues an edict prohibiting: building of synagogues, money-lending for interest, holding public office, testifying against Christians. Jews respond by meeting in Tivoli and Ravenna, with no success; causes them to move to other areas of Italy See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1444 UTRECHT Jews were banished again. The city council issued an ordinance directing that they be tortured on the wheel, imprisoned, and expelled.
In 1424 Jews were banished from the city; and their synagogue was transformed into the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. They evidently soon returned; for in 1444 the city council issued an ordinance directing that they be tortured on the wheel, imprisoned, and expelled. The reason for this procedure can no longer be determined with certainty; but it was due either to the fact that the Jews had championed the claims of Wolravus of Meurs to the bishopric, or to allegations made against them of insulting Christianity both publicly and privately. The ordinance of expulsion was quickly repealed, however, by the council itself; and Jews were permitted to settle in the village of Maarsen, near the city.
1446 Bavaria unconfirmed
1453 Franconis [ Franconia? ] unconfirmed.
1453 Breslau See The Department for Jewish Zionist Education
1454 Würzburg [ Bavaria ] unconfirmed.
The Department for Jewish Zionist Education says:-
1349-60. THE EXPULSION OF the JEWS OF HUNGARY.
In the wake of the Black Death, many of the Jews of Hungary were expelled. A general expulsion order attempted to get rid of the rest in 1360. Four years later the order was rescinded. This pattern of expelling the Jews and sometimes allowing their re-entry was repeated in these years for many Jewish communities in Europe. To give just a partial list of the localities which expelled their Jews over the next century and a half, the list includes; Strasbourg (1381), Lucerne (1384), Berne (1408 and again in 1427), Vienna (1421), Linz (1421) Cologne (1424), Freibourg (1428), Zurich (1436), Augsburg (1439), Bavaria (1442 and 1450), Moravia (1421 and 1454), Breslau (1453), Trent (1475), Peruggia (1485), Gubbio (1486), Geneva (1490), Ravenna (1491) and Campo San Pietro (1492).
1459 Fra Mauro (a converted Jew) prepares a map placing Jerusalem at the centre of the world, a practice which was discontinued by the late Renaissance. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1462 Establishment of "Monti di pieta," pity funds, by Franciscans to offer interest-free loans in direct competition with Jewish money-lenders; Jews lose business, and are therefore subject to expulsion See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1485 Vincenza (Italy) unconfirmed.
31 March, 1492 • Ferdinand and Isabella's Edict Against Spanish Jews
Separation not having worked, the monarchs gave the Jews until July 31st to sell their goods and leave the country. They were forbidden to carry gold or silver out of the kingdom. Worse, although signed in March, the edict was not publicly announced until the end of April, so the Jews actually had only three months to convert their property to trade goods.
In July 1492, the exodus began. When Columbus left on his famous voyage in August, he could not use the port of Cadiz because of the large numbers of Jews waiting to board ships in the harbour. Many Jews of Castile went to Portugal, where they were forced to pay a ransom to remain. Others went to Italy or the northern coast of Africa. Wherever they went, they were robbed.
Spain's economy paid for its mistreatment of the Jews: many had been skilled craftsmen. Sultan Bajazet of Turkey warmly welcomed those who escaped to his country. "How can you call Ferdinand of Aragon a wise king--the same Ferdinand who impoverished his own land and enriched ours?" he asked. He employed the Jew in making weapons to fight against Europe.
1491 Jews of Ravenna expelled, synagogues destroyed; instigated by Franciscan and Dominican friars whose goal was expulsion of all Jews from Italy – Perugia-1485, Gubbio-1486. . . See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1492 — Sicily and Sardinia, as territories ruled by Spain, expel their Jews. The majority of refugees from the Spanish expulsion head for Portugal and Italy, specifically Venice, Leghorn and Rome, where they are protected by the pope. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1494 — France invades Italy; Jews of Florence and Tuscany expelled when the Medici fall from power; they return in 1513 — and bring the Jews back with them. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1495 — Charles VIII of France occupies Kingdom of Naples, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain. Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
In 1454 anti-Jewish riots flared up in Wroclaw and other Silesian cities. They were inspired by the papal envoy, the Franciscan friar John of Capistrano. Though his main aim was to instigate a popular rebellion against the Hussites, he also carried out a ruthless campaign against the Jews whom he accused of profaning the Christian religion. As a result of Capistrano's endeavours, Jews were banished from Lower Silesia. Shortly after, John of Capistrano, invited to Poland by Zbigniew Olesnicki, conducted a similar campaign in Krakow and several other cities where, however, anti-Jewish unrest took on a much less acute form. Forty years later, in 1495, Jews were ordered out of the centre of Krakow and allowed to settle in the "Jewish town" of Kazimierz. In the same year, Alexander Jagiellon, following the example of Spanish rulers, banished the Jews from Lithuania. For several years they took shelter in Poland until they were allowed back to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1503.
UNQUOTE See http://www.polishjews.org/history1.htm
1497 Portugal, racist king kicks the Jews out He was malicious and on the make according to the source. The Jews of course were totally innocent.
1499 Germany unconfirmed.
1506 Apr. 19. A marrano expresses his doubts about miracle visions at St. Dominics Church in Lisbon, Portugal. The crowd, led by Dominican monks, kills him, then ransacks Jewish houses and slaughter any Jew they could find. The countrymen hear about the massacre and join in. Over 2,000 marranos killed in three days. See History of anti-Semitism
1510 Jews are expelled from Brandenburg, Germany. 38 Jews burned at the stake in Berlin.
See History of anti-Semitism
1510 Naples Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541. Were they using the wrong deodorant? See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1514 Strasbourg unconfirmed.
1516 The first ghetto in Europe established in Venice. See History of anti-Semitism
1519 Regensburg Martin Luther acts. See document Neupfarrplatz
1519 Ratisbon [ Regensburg in German ], Germany.
1519-1546 Martin Luther leads Protestant Reformation and challenges the doctrine of servitus Judaeorum "... to deal kindly with the Jews and to instruct them to come over to us". Later in pamphlet About the Jews and Their Lies, 1544 he calls to "Set their synagogues on fire... Their homes should be likewise broken down... Their rabbis must be forbidden to teach under the threat of death". His sermon Admonition against the Jews, 1546 contains accusations of ritual murder, black magic, and poisoning of wells. Luther recognized no obligation to protect the Jews. See History of anti-Semitism
1527 Florence unconfirmed.
1528 Three judaizers burned at the stake in the first auto da fe in Mexico City. See History of anti-Semitism
1535 After Spanish troops capture Tunis, all the local Jews are sold into slavery. See History of anti-Semitism
1540 Naples - 1541 Charles VIII of France occupies Kingdom of Naples in 1495, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain. Jews will be expelled from Naples in 1510 —and again in 1541. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline but they were readmitted in 1735.
1542 Bohemia unconfirmed.
1547 Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in or even enter his kingdom because they "bring about great evil" (quoting his response to request by Polish king Sigismund). See History of anti-Semitism
1550 2 April 1550 Jews are expelled from Genoa
1550 Dr. Joseph Hacohen is chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews are expelled. See History of anti-Semitism
1551 Bavaria unconfirmed.
1551 Pesaro 1555(?) unconfirmed.
1553 Italy, Pope orders burning of Talmud Convinced [ wrongly? the source isn't saying ] that the Talmud attacks Christianity, Pope Julius III burns thousands of volumes of Talmud in Rome, Bologna, Ferrara,Venice and Mantua.
1554 Italian Jews in Ferrara to discuss the banning of the Talmud. They adopt a rabbinic ordinance, recognized by the government, which establishes an internal control over the printing of Hebrew books. Similar rules are later adopted in Padua, Poland, Frankfurt and Amsterdam.
1554 Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome. See History of anti-Semitism
1555 In Papal Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV writes: "It appears utterly absurd and impermissible that the Jews, whom God has condemned to eternal slavery for their guilt, should enjoy our Christian love." He renews anti-Jewish legislation and installs a locked nightly ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forces Jewish males to wear a yellow hat, females - yellow kerchief. Owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians is forbidden. It also limits Jewish communities to only one synagogue. The Talmud is confiscated and publicly burned in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy. See History of anti-Semitism
1555 Pope Paul IV issues a bull, cum nimis absurdum, bringing religious and economic restrictions to the papal lands, requiring all Jews to live in ghettos and restricting economic relations with Christians to the selling of used clothes.
1556 Dona Gracia Mendes responding to persecution by Pope Paul IV against the Jews of Ancona, He leads an unsuccessful economic boycott against the port of Ancona favouring trade with Pisaro, which has accepted the Jewish refugees. The plan fails due to internal divisions in the Jewish community over fear of further persecution.
1558 Recanti, Italy: a baptized Jew Joseph Paul More enters synagogue on Yom Kippur under the protection of Pope Paul IV and tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicts him. Soon after, the Jews are expelled from Recanti. See History of anti-Semitism
1559 Pope Paul IV places the Talmud on the list of banned books, Index liborum prohibitorum. Popes Pius IV and Gregory XIII will later permit the printing of the Talmud, but allowing censorship of passages that are deemed insulting to Christianity; therefore, the Talmud is not printed in Italy. The last edition of the Index, 1948, still includes books written by Jews.
1559 12,000 copies of Talmud burned in Milan. See History of anti-Semitism
1559 Austria unconfirmed
1561 Prague unconfirmed.
1563 Feb. Russian troops take Polotsk from Lithuania, Jews are given ultimatum: embrace Russian Orthodox Church or die. Around 300 Jewish men, women and children were thrown into ice holes of Dvina river. See History of anti-Semitism
1564 Brest-Litovsk: the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector is accused of killing the family's Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and executed in line with the law. King Sigismund Augustus of Poland forbade future charges of ritual murder, calling them groundless. See History of anti-Semitism
1567 Würzburg [ Bavaria ] unconfirmed.
1567 Genoese Republic See Rabbi Joseph HaKohen - (5256 - 5837; 1496 - 1577) - Jewish History
1569 All Papal Territory except Rome and Ancona. See Jews In Italy
1569 — Pope Pius V expels the Jews from the papal states, with the exception of Ancona and Rome. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org
1570 —Establishment of the ghetto in Florence, locking in 86 Jews at night. The ghetto was established by Cosimo under pressure from the Church, in exchange for his receiving the title of Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1571, the ghetto swells to 500, as Jews from all over the Grand Duchy of Tuscany are compelled to live within the ghetto walls. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org
1571 — The Venetian government, at war with Turkey, resolves to expel all Jews from Venice and the Adriatic Islands. Though the expulsion is not enforced, it reflects the impact of the Counter-Reformation and the papal willingness to sacrifice local commercial interests to doctrinal necessities. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org
1571 Brandenburg unconfirmed. This hostile source mentions a Jewish atrocity there, It gives sources but only in book form. http://www.solargeneral.com/ja/ritualmurder/dersturmer.htm
1580 - 1620 The Republic of the Seven Netherlands (Holland) became very tolerant of Jews. It became a haven for Jews fleeing the Inquisition. There Castellio's arguments for religious freedom won out over the influence of Beza. 1582 When the Netherlands came under the rule of Charles V of Spain, the Jews were expelled.
In the "Scots Confession" ch.18 Reformer John Knox upheld the original Calvinist tenet of intolerance, distinguishing "the Harlot" (Rome) and "the filthy synagogues" from "the true Kirk". 1622 King Christian IV of Denmark and others invited Jews to reside in their lands, when the Thirty Year War raged in central Europe. See http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=836
1590 King Philip II of Spain orders expulsion of Jews from Lombardy. His order is ignored by local authorities until 1597, when 72 Jewish families are forced to exile. See History of anti-Semitism
1593 Brandenburg, Austria unconfirmed
1593 —Pope Clement VIII expels the Jews living in all the papal states, except Rome, Avignon and Ancona. Jews are invited to settle in Leghorn, the main port of Tuscany , where they are granted full religious liberty and civil rights, by the Medici family, who want to develop the region into a centre of commerce. In 1600, 100 Jews live there, growing to 3,000 in 1689 and 5,000 at the end of the century. It is the only large Italian city without a closed ghetto. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org
1595 —A synagogue is built in the north-western town of Piedmont, in the typical synagogue architecture of the Renaissance, within a courtyard. Concerned for their security, and following the prohibition of Jewish prayer to be heard by Christians, the Jews place the entrance away from the street. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org
1597 — Nine hundred Jews are expelled from Milan, which is now ruled by Spain. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org
1597 Cremona Unconfirmed.
1597 Pavia Unconfirmed.
1597 Lodi Unconfirmed.
1597 Nine hundred Jews are expelled from Milan , which is now ruled by Spain. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
8 January 1598 Jews were expelled from Genoa.
1603 Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, burned alive in Lisbon. See History of anti-Semitism
1612 The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship. See History of anti-Semitism
1614 Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the "new Haman of the Jews", leads a raid on Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community. See History of anti-Semitism
1615 King Louis XIII of France decrees that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death. See History of anti-Semitism
1615 The Guild led by Dr. Chemnitz, "non-violently" forced the Jews from Worms. See History of anti-Semitism
1619 Kiev unconfirmed
1619 Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increases persecution against the Jews, forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. Many keep practicing Judaism in secret. See History of anti-Semitism
1624 Ghetto established in Ferrara, Italy. See History of anti-Semitism
1632 King Ladislaus IV of Poland forbids Anti-Semitic print-outs. See History of anti-Semitism
1648-1655 The Ukrainian Cossacks lead by Bohdan Chmielnicki massacre about 100,000 Jews and similar number of Polish nobles, 300 Jewish communities destroyed. See History of anti-Semitism
1654 Little Russia Twenty-three Jewish refugees from Brazil settle in New Amsterdam, forming the nucleus of what would be the largest urban Jewish community in history, the Jewish community of New York City.
1655 Oliver Cromwell, proto-communist readmits Jews to England. See History of anti-Semitism
1656 Lithuania unconfirmed
1664 May. Jews of Lvov ghetto organize self-defence against impending assault by students of Jesuit seminary and Cathedral school. The militia sent by the officials to restore order, instead joined the attackers. About 100 Jews killed. See History of anti-Semitism
1669 Oran (North Africa) unconfirmed
1670 Vienna, by Emperor Leopold I. They were blamed for the fire in the Vienna Hofburg. See Habsburg Dynasty See also History of anti-Semitism
1682 — Pope Innocent XII abolishes Jewish loan-banks in Rome. In 1683, he extends the ban to Ferrara and other Jewish ghettos under his authority. Prohibited from shop keeping and most trades and crafts, the Roman Jewish community shrinks, while the Jews of Northern Italy begin entering commerce and industry. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1683 French Possessions in America, by King Louis XIV unconfirmed
1711 Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum ("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern anti-Semitic polemics. See History of anti-Semitism
1712 Sandomir [ aka Sandomierz ] Blood libel in Sandomierz and expulsion of the town's Jews. See History of anti-Semitism
1727 Russia Edict of Catherine I of Russia: "The Jews... who are found in Ukraine and in other Russian provinces are to be expelled at once beyond the frontiers of Russia." See History of anti-Semitism
1734-1736 The Haidamaks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews. See History of anti-Semitism
1735 Italy Jews forced to choose between fines or public beatings
1738 Württemberg KARL ALEXANDER (1733-1737) was Catholic, in contrast to the Lutheran estates.... Karl Alexander used the services of Jewish banker SÜSS OPPENHEIMER, who introduced MERCANTILIST POLICY and made enemies in the commissions. After the death of Karl Alexander he was arrested, sentenced in a show trial and executed (1738). No mention of expulsions but not unlikely.
1739 Little Russia 1740(?) unconfirmed
1740 Jews and Huguenots get to be citizens in England, then again in 1753 [ see Wikipedia ]
1742 Dec. Elizabeth of Russia issues a decree of expulsion of all the Jews out of Russian Empire. Her resolution to the Senate's appeal regarding harm to the trade: "I don't desire any profits from the enemies of Christ". One of the deportees is Antonio Ribera Sanchez, her own personal physician and the head of army's medical dept. See History of anti-Semitism
1744 Frederick II The Great (a "heroic genius", according to Hitler) limits Breslau to ten "protected" Jewish families, on the grounds that otherwise they will "transform it into complete Jerusalem". He encourages this practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issues Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: "protected" Jews had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin" (Simon Dubnow). See History of anti-Semitism
1744 Dec. Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa orders: "... no Jew is to be tolerated in our inherited duchy of Bohemia" by the end of Feb. 1745. In Dec. 1748 she reverses her position, on condition that Jews pay for readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen's money). See History of anti-Semitism
On March 30, 1743, eighteen Jews were expelled from Dorpat, Livonia. Nevertheless, Isaac Marcus Solomon is met with in Riga in 1744, when the governor-general granted him permission to remain in the city for a further period of eight days. When, in Feb., 1744, the children and servant of the Jew David were expelled from the town, the only Jew left in Riga was Moses Meyer, who was allowed to remain because of his connection with a case before the Senate. For the following twenty years there is no record of Jews in the city. See the Jewish Encyclopaedia
1745 Moravia In 1744 Jews were expelled from Bohemia and 1745 from Moravia under Empress Maria Theresa. 1753 Under the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna about 35,000 Jews were expelled from Russia. 1768 Russia's expansion and the defeat of Poland confronted the Russians with large established Jewish communities, who had previously not been under their rule. Czarina Catherine II, the Great, established a territory, the so-called Pale of Settlement. It was to prevent the Jewish population from influencing Russian society and to be a buffer between Russia and its western neighbours. Jews needed special permits to travel outside the Pale. Persecutions of Jews continued violently in Poland, Lithuania and Russia, were Jews had fled from Crusaders and the Inquisition in western Europe. See http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=836
1752. Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa introduces the law limiting each Jewish family in Bohemia to one son. See History of anti-Semitism
1753 Kovad (Lithuania) unconfirmed
1753 Parliament grants citizenship to Jews
1759 A cardinal, later Pope Clement XIV, issues a report condemning blood libel accusations. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1761 Bordeaux unconfirmed
1762 Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony." See History of anti-Semitism
1768 Haidamaks massacre the Jews of Uman, Poland. See History of anti-Semitism
1772 Jews deported to the Pale of Settlement (Russia) See Jewish Encyclopaedia
1774 Prague, Bohemia [ unconfirmed ] and Moravia [ unconfirmed ]
Marshal Lubomirski's guard invaded New Jerusalem [ a Jewish suburb], confiscated the merchandise found there, and demolished all the Jewish houses. The merchandise thus seized, which was valued at hundreds of thousands of gulden, was stored in the arsenal and was later sold at public auction, the proceeds being returned to the Jews. SeeJewish Encyclopaedia
1775 Pope Pius VI issues a severe Editto sopra gli ebrei (Edict concerning the Jews). Previously lifted restrictions are reimposed, Judaism is suppressed. See History of anti-Semitism
1782 Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II abolishes most of persecution practices in Toleranzpatent on condition that Yiddish and Hebrew are eliminated from public records and judicial autonomy is annulled. Judaism is branded "quintessence of foolishness and nonsense". Moses Mendelssohn writes: "Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution". See History of anti-Semitism
In the following year the Jews secured permission to rebuild their houses, but had meanwhile settled in large numbers in the city itself. On May 25, 1784, however, Marshal Mniszek issued an ordinance expelling the Jews from Warsaw and its environs, though it should be noted that the better classes of Polish society condemned the ill treatment of the Warsaw Jews by the Christian merchant and artisan gilds. This is clear from the following paragraph, for example, in the Warsaw periodical "Pamietnik Historyczo-Politiczny" (1783, p. 5): "What terrible spectacles must we witness in the capital on solemn holidays! Students and even adults in noisy mobs persecute the Jews and sometimes beat them with sticks. We ourselves have seen a gang waylay a Jew, stop his horses, and give him such a cudgelling that he fell from the wagon. How can we look with indifference on such a survival of barbarism?" SeeJewish Encyclopaedia
1790 May 20. Eleazer Solomon is quartered for the alleged murder of a Christian girl in Grodno. See History of anti-Semitism
The questions were real. At the very time of the [ French ] Declaration [ of the Rights of Man, 1789 ] anti-Jewish riots broke out in Alsace, the first and ominous indication that the secular nation-state might not end anti-Jewish sentiment, but merely secularize it into a new mode, to be given (in 1879) the name "anti-Semitism." Later in 1789, speaking in a debate on the eligibility of Jews for citizenship, the Count of Clermont-Tonnerre spelled out in a fateful sentence the terms on which Jews could be included in the new political dispensation. "The Jews," he said, "should be denied everything as a nation, but granted everything as individuals." "It is intolerable," he continued, "that the Jews should become a separate political formation or class within the country. Every one of them must individually become a citizen; if they do not want this, they must inform us and we shall then be compelled to expel them." See Love, Hate, and Jewish Identity
1790 "To Bigotry No Sanction, to Persecution No Assistance" (George Washington's Letter to the Jews of Newport, Rhode Island) (http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/US-Israel/bigotry.html) See History of anti-Semitism
1790-1792 Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco. See History of anti-Semitism
1791 Catherine II of Russia confines Jews to the Pale of Settlement and imposes them with double taxes. Pale of Settlement (http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/History/pale.html) See History of anti-Semitism
1798 — With the French expulsion of the pope from Rome, Jews are granted equal rights and all earlier special laws relating to their status are revoked. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1799 — As a result of the restoration of the old rulers in Italy, the Jews are again ghettoized and the restrictions against them are reimposed. See Italy and the Jews - Timeline
1804 Villages in Russia unconfirmed
1805 Massacre of Jews in Algeria. See History of anti-Semitism
1808 Villages & Countryside (Russia) unconfirmed
11Citizenship granted to Prussian Jews. See Prussia Virtual Jewish History Tour | Jewish Virtual Library
1815 Bremen unconfirmed
1815 Franconia, Swabia & Bavaria unconfirmed
06Jews are expelled from Free city of Lübeck Germany. See Today in Jewish History (Part 2) _ OnThisDay.com.htm
21Russia's Czar Alexander I petitions for a Jewish state in Palestine. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1819 A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighbouring countries: Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia known as Hep-Hep Riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany. See History of anti-Semitism
1820 Bremes unconfirmed
05Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbids Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1827 August 26 Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish boys under 18 years of age, known as the Cantonists, were placed in preparatory military training establishments for 25 years. Cantonists were encouraged and sometimes forced to baptize. See History of anti-Semitism
20Jews are expelled from Russia's Nikolayev Sevastopol.
See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1835 Oppressive constitution for the Jews issued by Czar Nicholas I of Russia. See History of anti-Semitism
1840 The Damascus affair: false accusations cause arrests and atrocities, culminating in the seizure of sixty-three Jewish children and attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Middle East. See History of anti-Semitism
1843 Russian Border Austria & Prussia - all unconfirmed
1844 Karl Marx praises Bruno Bauer's essays containing demands that the Jews abandon Judaism, and publishes his work On the Jewish Question: "What is the worldly cult of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly god? Money... Money is the jealous God of Israel, besides which no other god may exist... The god of the Jews has been secularized and has become the god of this world", "In the final analysis, the emancipation of the Jews is the emancipation of mankind from Judaism." See History of anti-Semitism
07Poll tax levied on Russo-Polish Jews entering Austrian Galicia ends. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
03Anti Jewish riots break out in Stockholm. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
02Austrian law forbids Jews from owning land. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1853 Blood libel in Saratov, Russia renews of the blood libels throughout Russia. See History of anti-Semitism
1858 Edgardo Mortara, a six-year-old Jewish boy, is abducted in Bologna by Catholic conversionists, an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles. See History of anti-Semitism
1860 Feb 01 First rabbi to open House of Representatives, Morris Raphall of New York NY. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression. [ Oppression? ]
1862 Nov 09 US Grant issues orders to bar Jews from serving under him during the American Civil War.
1862 Dec 17 General US Grant issues order #11, expelling Jews from Tennessee.
1862 Area in the U.S. under Grant's Jurisdiction by General Order No 11 Wikipedia does not approve. Nor did Abraham Lincoln. It was soon rescinded.
1862 Polish Jews are given equal rights. Old privileges forbidding Jews to settle in some cities are abolished. See History of anti-Semitism
1866 Galatz unconfirmed
In 1866 a new sovereign, Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was elected and a new constitution adopted. Under the pressure of demonstrations organized by the police (during which the Choir Temple in Bucharest was demolished and the Jewish quarter plundered), the seventh article of the constitution, restricting citizenship to the Christian population, was adopted...
In the spring of 1867 the minister of interior, Ion Bratianu, started to expel Jews from the villages and banish non-citizens from the country... Hundreds of families, harassed by humiliating regulations (e.g., a prohibition on building sukkot), were forced to leave the villages. Local officials regarded such persecution as an effective method of extorting bribes. See Jewishvirtuallibrary.org
1871 Speech of Pope Pius IX in regards to Jews: "of these dogs, there are too many of them at present in Rome, and we hear them howling in the streets, and they are disturbing us in all places." See History of anti-Semitism
1871 Apr 16 German Empire ends all anti-Jewish civil restrictions. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1878 Adolf Stoecker, German anti-Semitic preacher and politician, founds the Social Workers' Party, which marks the beginning of the political anti-Semitic movement in Germany. See History of anti-Semitism
1881 Apr 25 250,000 Germans petition to bar foreign Jews from entering Germany. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1881 Apr 27 Pogroms against Russian Jews start in Elisabethgrad. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1881 May 05 Anti-Jewish rioting in Kiev Ukraine. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1882 Apr 13 Anti-Semitic League forms in Prussia. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1882 May 15 May Laws-Czar Alexander III bans Jews from living in rural Romania. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1882 Sep 10 First international conference to promote anti-Semitism meets in Dresden Germany (Congress for Safeguarding of Non-Jewish Interests). See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
12Anti-Jewish violence breaks out in Bucharest Romania. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
01Jews are expelled from Kiev Russia. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
19(Dreyfus) President Loubet of France pardons Jewish army captain Alfred Dreyfus, twice court-martialled and wrongly convicted of spying for Germany. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
29Anti Semitic riot in Budapest. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
26A pogrom against Jews in Minsk Byelorussia. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
29Pogrom against Jewish community in Brisk Lithuania. See Jewish history and Jewish oppression.
1917 Jaffa and Tel Aviv, by Turkish Authorities - unconfirmed
1917 The Balfour Declaration proclaimed British support for Jewish settlement in Palestine.
1919 Bavaria (foreign born Jews) unconfirmed
1937 Germany Jews were being encouraged to leave. This policy continued.
1938 - At the end of the year the persecution of the Jews intensifies. Over the days of 9-10 November, the Nazis orchestrate the Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) pogrom. Jewish shops, houses and synagogues across Germany are burnt by both the Schutzstaffel (SS) - the 'Blackshirts', Hitler's personal guard - and the general population. Ninety-one Jews are killed. Thirty thousand are arrested and deported.... Hitler is named 'Time' magazine's man of the year. See Adolf Hitler
1943 Jews In Italy
By 1922 the process of assimilation was almost complete. Of course, it was at this time that the Fascists came to power. At the beginning many Jews supported them, even participating in the March on Rome. However, in 1929 Mussolini passed the Falco Laws. These laws contradicted article 8 of the Italian constitution that allowed freedom of religion..... In 1938 Mussolini produced his Manifesto of Italian Racism........ . Jews were expelled from all public services, such as the army and also public schools.
E. .E. O
Hungary Widespread Anti-Semitic Riots on University Campuses
1929 C.E. L
1948War of 1948
Jewish sect expelled from Guatemalan village after clashes with Mayan villagers
Members of an ultra-Orthodox Jewish sect have been expelled from a lakeside Guatemalan village after clashing with the local Mayan population. Around 230 members of Lev Tahor, an intensely religious Jewish group that rejects the state of Israel, moved to Guatemala earlier this year after fleeing amid allegations of child abuse in Canada.
The group, sometimes referred to as “the Jewish Taliban” by Israeli
media, reassembled in San Juan La Laguna, a tourist village in western
Guatemala, where they devoted themselves to prayer and religious study.
But tensions quickly flared between the Tz’utujil villagers and their
austere, black-clad Jewish neighbours. Lev Tahor shuns technology and its female members wear black robes
from head-to-toe, leaving only their faces exposed.
If you don't have problems you can always create them. The story is confirmed by:-http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/fundamentalist-jews-expelled-from-guatemalan-refuge-after-being-threatened-with-lynching-9701807.html
Context of Jewish Problems Here are some remarks on the reasons.
Europe in the 14th and 15th Centuries - some context
The bubonic form of the disease was a bacterium (Yersinia pestis) spread by fleas from rats. The pneumonic form of the disease spread from one person to other people. This was made worse by crowding in the cities. Some cities lost from half to two-thirds of their population. Some small cities became ghost towns. Common folks were dying as well as the most pious. Perhaps a third of the Catholic clergy died, with priests who attended the afflicted being hit the hardest. The poor were hit harder than aristocrats because they were generally in poorer health and less able to resist the disease and because they were more crowded together. Wolves fared better and appeared in some capital cities.
People did not understand the source of the plague, and panic spread faster than the disease. The belief in witchcraft was revitalized. Believing that the end of the world was at hand, some groups engaged in frenzied bacchanals and orgies. People called the Flagellants believed that the plague was the judgment of God on sinful mankind. They traveled the country, men and women flogging one another. They preached that anyone doing this for thirty-three days would be cleansed of all his sins -- one day for every year that Christ lived. The Church was still on guard against innovative religious proclamations, and in 1349 Pope Clement VI condemned the movement.
The wandering mobs focused their wrath upon clergy who opposed them, and they targeted Jews, whom they blamed for inciting God's wrath. In Germany rumors arose that Jews had caused the plague by poisoning the water. Pogroms followed. Jews were arrested. Their fortunes were seized by the lords under whose jurisdictions they lived, and Jews were put to death by burning. The attacks on Jews were condemned by Clement VI, and he threatened excommunication for those Christians who harmed Jews.
JEWISH MONEY AND ECONOMIC INFLUENCE
A view from Werner Sombart who was a German professor of economics. He thought that capitalism originated from an earlier tradition than Christianity and that it was more a Jewish construct. He was published in 1911 and not challenged at the time. He says of them that:-* They were foreigners with no formal citizenship everywhere in theirdiaspora.* They were scattered throughout the world, never concentratedin a single area.* Their physical and social separateness from non-Jews was voluntaryand part of their religious world view.* They were not peasants and were not linked to the land in their diaspora;wherever they were found, they were an urban class.* They lived a double standard of morality: one for themselves andanother for non-Jews, which functioned to position them asintermediaries between other peoples, and ultimately protectedtheir group solidarity and identity.* They had strong injunctions to marry only within the Jewish community.[TRAVERSO, p. 44]* They also accumulated "liquid wealth," per merchantry andmoney lending enterprises.
At least some of this is beyond dispute. They may feel disposed to object to the rest. That does not mean that he is wrong.
Errors & omissions,
broken links, cock ups, over-emphasis, malice [ real or imaginary ] or
whatever; if you find any I am open to comment.
Email me at Mike Emery. All financial contributions are cheerfully accepted. If you want to keep it private, use my PGP Key. Home Page
Updated on Thursday, 04 January 2018 18:12:15